Modifying parenting attitudes and behaviours has been a central focus of many programs designed to improvethe social and emotional development of young children. The impetus for focusing on parenting is based on common sense and a large body of research demonstrating associations between parenting in early childhoodand a number of later socio-emotional outcomes. Even before formal research studies were initiated on the effects of early socialization practices in relation to children’s later psychosocial outcomes, many community based programs focused on parenting because of young children’s physical and psychological dependence on caregivers. This emphasis on parenting has been bolstered since the 1940s, when research on the effects ofearly parenting was formally initiated. Since then a plethora of studies, including those utilizing genetically informed designs, have found associations between caregiving behaviours in early childhood and later child outcomes. A number of parenting dimensions have been associated with various types of child adjustment. On the positive side, early caregiving characterized as sensitive, responsive, involved, proactive and providingstructure has been associated with positive socio-emotional adjustment. (Author Abstract)
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Parenting Programs and Their Impact on the Social and Emotional Development of Young Children.